A Review on Acrylamide in Food: Occurrence, Toxicity, and Mitigation Strategies


Acrylamide (AA) is a food contaminant present in a wide range of frequently consumed foods, which makes human exposure to this toxicant unfortunately unavoidable. However, efforts to reduce the formation of AA in food have resulted in some success. This review aims to summarize the occurrence of AA and the potential mitigation strategies of its formation in foods. Formation of AA in foods is mainly linked to Maillard reaction, which is the first feasible route that can be manipulated to reduce AA formation. Furthermore, manipulating processing conditions such as time and temperature of the heating process, and including certain preheating treatments such as soaking and blanching, can further reduce AA formation. Due to the high exposure to AA, recognition of its toxic effect is necessary, especially in developing countries where awareness about AA health risks is still very low. Therefore, this review also focuses on the different toxic effects of AA exposure, including neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity.


fatima Saleh


Lubna Rifai

Journal/Conference Information

International Journal of Toxicology,DOI: 10.1177/1091581820902405, ISSN: 10915818, Volume: 39, Issue: 2, Pages Range: 93-102,