Risk of exposure to aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, and fumonisin B1 from spices used routinely in Lebanese cooking


Spices are susceptible to mycotoxin contamination which can cause gastrointestinal and adverse central nervous symptoms in humans, which highlights the importance of assessing the risk of their consumption on a daily basis. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of mycotoxin intake from spices in routinely prepared Lebanese dishes. 150 households were interviewed about their usage of 27 type of spices and 6 routinely prepared Lebanese dishes. Results showed a high variability in consumption levels. Among the investigated dishes, the minimum number of spices that were consumed in a dish was 13 while the maximum was 18. The mean intake of one spice ranged from 0.26 g/portion observed for cloves to 5.37 g/portion for cinnamon, with its intake per portion more than 1 g in 2/3 of dishes. 20% of portion sizes of coriander, cinnamon and fennel, had an intake exceeding 5 g/portion. Ochratoxin A (OTA) Probable Daily Intake (PDI) had a mean of 0.11 ng/kg-bw/day. Mean PDI of fumonisin B1 (FB1) was 79.3 ng/kg-bw/day. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) PDI had a mean of 1.55 ng/kg-bw/day. The Margin of Exposure (MOE) of AFB1 ranged from 108.10 to 4444.44. The present study showed that the risk of AFB1 from spices is a matter of concern while the risk of OTA and FB1 is limited with the exception of FB1 from garlic and onion.

Journal/Conference Information

Food and chemical toxicology,DOI:, Volume: 147, Issue: 2021, Pages Range: 111-895,