Optimization of Infrared‑assisted Extraction of Bioactive Lactones from Saussurea lappa L. and their Effects against Gestational Diabetes


Background: Saussurea lappa (S. lappa, Asteraceae) have immunomodulatory effects and used in the management of many metabolic disorders. Gestational diabetes is one of the metabolic disorders affecting globally one in seven pregnant women. Objectives: The aim of the current study is to optimize an infrared‑assisted extraction (IR‑AE) method for S. lappa bioactive constituents, phytochemically investigate its content, isolate its most active constituent, and to assess their biological effects against gestational diabetes. Materials and Methods: To optimize IR‑AE conditions, four main factors were studied including solvent concentration, extraction time, powder size, and IR power in the yielded extract (SL‑IR). Reversed‑phase high‑performance liquid chromatography coupled with bio‑guided fractionation and isolation procedures using 1H and 13C NMR method were utilized. Solid–liquid (SL‑SLE) and ultrasound (SL‑US) extraction methods were also done. Results: The optimal IR‑AE extraction conditions were found to be 20% aqueous phase concentration, 60‑min extraction time, 70 mesh powder size, and 70 W IR power. Phytochemically, four major lactones were identified, including costunolide, dehydrocostuslactone, isoalantolactone, and alantolactone (ATL). ATL was the most active lactone. SL-IR, SL-US, SL-SLE, or ATL showed a significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent hypoglycemia in pregnant diabetic group, adequate fetus weight percentage elevation and did not show any external anomalies. The best control of gestational diabetes, insulin secretagogue potentials, elevation in serum catalase and reduced glutathione levels, and lipid peroxidation decrease were demonstrated by SL‑IR 250 mg/Kg. The antioxidant and the insulin secretagogue activities might be among the main mechanisms, whereby the SL‑IR controls gestational diabetes and decreases offspring anomalies. Conclusion: Currently, it is the first time to optimize an IR‑AE method for extracting bioactive lactones from S. lappa. The optimized IR‑AE technique has shown to be a rapid and efficient extraction method with SL‑IR showing superiority in controlling gestational diabetes for pregnant groups coupled with high safety profile on the offspring.


Karim M Raafat


Karim M Raafat, Fatima Saleh, Nada El-Darra, Hiba N. Rajha, Nicolas Louka

Journal/Conference Information

Pharmacognosy Magazine,DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_380_18, ISSN: 0973-1296, Volume: 15, Issue: 61, Pages Range: 208-218,